Science Art: Galileo’s Moon Phases, 1616.

Scientific illustration by Galileo Galilei of the moon's phases, showing its craters and mountains.

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Galileo drew pictures of the moon – pictures that included imperfections on the surface. The moon, he observed, had texture. Hills and valleys. Craters. Dimensionality.

This was controversial at the time; if heavenly bodies couldn’t lead us to greater perfection, what could?