Science Art: Amundsen Expedition Map of Antarctica, 1911-1912

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Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen did away with Terra Australis Incognito for good in December 1911. (It was more than a decade later that he went after Santa Claus in his polar fortress.)

He credited his success with not wasting much time surveying and mapping – he went to the South Pole, took two photographs, claimed it for King Haakon, and left. He later wrote: “I may say that this is the greatest factor—the way in which the expedition is equipped—the way in which every difficulty is foreseen, and precautions taken for meeting or avoiding it. Victory awaits him who has everything in order — luck, people call it. Defeat is certain for him who has neglected to take the necessary precautions in time; this is called bad luck.”