Science Art: Theoria Lunae from Harmonia Macrocosmica by Andreas Cellarius.

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In 1660, Dutch-German cartographer Andreas Cellarius created an atlas of the stars.

This map shows how people thought the moon moved in 1660 – in epicycles. Before we knew planets had elliptical orbits, these circles-within-circles explained why heavenly bodies seemed to speed up and slow down as they moved across the sky. Now, we know it’s because they were at the long end or the short end of their egg-shaped paths.

It’s a little simpler than this elegant, arcane geometry.