This is a waterwheel, from a book written by architect and engineer Georg Andreas Boeckler, under the title Theatrum machinarum novum : exhibens opera molaria et aquatica constructum industria Georgi Andrea Böckleri… and so on. (The title page doesn’t have a lot of white space on it.)
For the Renaissance, this is pretty high tech – it turns running water into flour!
Boeckler built fountains. He had a thing for moving water… and moving things with water. His whole book of wonderful machines is in the New York Public Library Digital Collections.