Chimpanzees use insects as medicine.

New Scientist has a different kind of drug story, about primatologists in Gabon who have spotted chimpanzees rubbing their wounds with winged insects – apparently using the bugs for self-medication, although they’re not sure why:

In November 2019, Alessandra Mascaro, who works on the Ozouga Chimpanzee Project at Loango National Park, watched and filmed a female chimpanzee named Suzee nursing the injured foot of her son, Sia. Unexpectedly, she noticed Suzee take something from between her lips and apply it to the open wound. When analysing video footage of the exchange, Mascaro and her colleagues realised that Suzee had placed a winged insect on Sia’s wound.

“We had witnessed something really amazing,” says team member Simone Pika at Osnabrück University in Germany.

After the initial observation, the researchers continued to monitor Suzee and the roughly 45 other chimps in her community until February 2021. In total, they observed the behaviour in 22 chimps. In 19 cases, chimps would catch a small winged insect and press it between their lips, then rub it onto their own exposed wounds using their lips or fingers before removing the insect.

“What is intriguing me at the moment is, which insect species are they catching? And do they understand what they’re doing?” says Pika. It could be that the unknown insects have medicinal properties, say the researchers.

“You can find many amazing substances in insects which are antibiotic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal. They can have a soothing effect or help you to decrease the inflammation,” says Pika.