Scientific American looks at looking at. That is, the magazine – through an essay by systems neuroscientist György Buzsáki – surveys how it is that the human mind detects the world around us and, rather than simply conveying everything we perceive all at once, actually builds an purposefully incomplete image of the world based on what it thinks we need to know:
Ever since the time of Aristotle, thinkers have assumed that the soul or the mind is initially a blank slate, a tabula rasa on which experiences are painted. This view has influenced thinking in Christian and Persian philosophies, British empiricism and Marxist doctrine. In the past century it has also permeated psychology and cognitive science. This “outside-in” view portrays the mind as a tool for learning about the true nature of the world. The alternative view—one that has defined my research—asserts that the primary preoccupation of brain networks is to maintain their own internal dynamics and perpetually generate myriad nonsensical patterns of neural activity. When a seemingly random action offers a benefit to the organism’s survival, the neuronal pattern leading to that action gains meaning. When an infant utters “te-te,” the parent happily offers the baby “Teddy,” so the sound “te-te” acquires the meaning of the Teddy bear.
The outside-in framework presumes that the brain’s fundamental function is to perceive “signals” from the world and correctly interpret them. But if this assumption is true, an additional operation is needed to respond to these signals. Wedged between perceptual inputs and outputs resides a hypothetical central processor—which takes in sensory representations from the environment and makes decisions about what to do with them to perform the correct action.
So what exactly is the central processor in this outside-in paradigm? This poorly understood and speculative entity goes by various names—free will, homunculus, decision maker, executive function, intervening variables or simply just a “black box.”
The outside-in framework follows a chain of events from perception to decision to action. In this model, neurons in dedicated sensory areas are “driven” by environmental signals and thus cannot relate their activity to something else. But the brain is not a serial processing unit; it does not proceed one by one through each of these steps. Instead any action a person takes involves the brain’s motor areas informing the rest of the cerebral cortex about the action initiated—a message known as a corollary discharge.
Neuronal circuits that initiate an action dedicate themselves to two tasks. The first is to send a command to the muscles that control the eyes and other bodily sensors (the fingers and tongue, among others). These circuits orient bodily sensors in the optimal direction for in-depth investigation of the source of an input and enhance the brain’s ability to identify the nature and location of initially ambiguous incoming signals from the senses.
The second task of these same action circuits involves sending notifications—the corollary discharges—to sensory and higher-order brain areas. Think of them as registered mail receipts. Neurons that initiate eye movement also notify visual sensory areas of the cortex about what is happening and disambiguate whether, say, a flower is moving in the wind or being handled by the person observing it.
This corollary message provides the second opinion sensory circuits need for grounding—a confirmation that “my own action is the agent of change.” Similar corollary messages are sent to the rest of the brain when a person takes actions to investigate the flower and its relationship to oneself and other objects. Without such exploration, stimuli from the flower alone—the photons arriving on the retina connected to an inexperienced brain—would never become signals that furnish a meaningful description of the flower’s size and shape. Perception then can be defined as what we do—not what we passively take in through our senses.
You can demonstrate a simple version of the corollary discharge mechanism. Cover one of your eyes with one hand and move the other eye gently from the side with the tip of your finger at about three times per second while reading this text. You will see immediately that the page is moving back and forth. By comparison, when you are reading or looking around the room, nothing seems to move. This constancy occurs because neurons that initiate eye movements to scan sentences also send a corollary signal to the visual system to indicate whether the world or the eyeball is moving, thus stabilizing the perception of your surroundings.
A tacit assumption of the blank slate model is that the complexity of the brain grows with the amount of experience. As we learn, the interactions of brain circuits should become increasingly more elaborate. In the inside-out framework, however, experience is not the main source of the brain’s complexity.
Instead the brain organizes itself into a vast repertoire of preformed patterns of firing known as neuronal trajectories. This self-organized brain model can be likened to a dictionary filled initially with nonsensical words. New experience does not change the way these networks function—their overall activity level, for instance. Learning takes place, rather, through a process of matching the preexisting neuronal trajectories to events in the world.
Further support for the importance of disengaged circuit operations comes from “offline” brain activity when an animal is milling around doing nothing, consuming a reward or just sleeping. As a rat rests in the home cage after a maze exploration, its hippocampus generates brief, self-organized neuronal trajectories. These sharp wave ripples, as they are known, occur in 100-millisecond time windows and reactivate the same neurons that were firing during several seconds of maze running, recapitulating the neuronal sequences that occurred during maze traversals. Sharp wave-ripple sequences help to form our long-term memories and are essential to normal brain functioning. In fact, alteration of sharp wave-ripple events by experimental manipulations or disease results in serious memory impairment….
Clever experiments performed in human subjects and in animals over the past decade show that the time-compressed ripple events constitute an internalized trial-and-error process that subconsciously creates real or fictive alternatives for making decisions about an optimal strategy, constructing novel inferences and planning ahead for future actions without having to immediately test them by undertaking a real exploit. In this sense, our thoughts and plans are deferred actions, and disengaged brain activity is an active, essential brain operation. In contrast, the outside-in theory does not make any attempt to assign a role to the disengaged brain when it is at rest or even in the midst of sleep.